The Type 1 Diabetes Defense Foundation was founded during Diabetes Awareness Month in November 2015. It has been our privilege to work for the diabetes community ever since, seeking full and inclusive access to education, employment and health care for people with type 1 and other insulin dependent forms of diabetes. 

We seek to be the cause leader for diabetes-related civil and consumer rights.

T1DF was initially incorporated in Washington State as the Type 1 Diabetes Defense Fund. In 2015–2016 we began our campaign for nationwide equal access to school emergency care with a pilot school accommodation project in Washington State. In December 2016 T1DF reincorporated in Oregon as the Type 1 Diabetes Defense Foundation, a public benefit corporation with a new commitment to impact litigation as a tool for change, and an added organizational emphasis on consumer rights.




Julia Boss

President / Communications and Outreach

Julia Boss founded T1DF in 2015 after learning that K-12 students with type 1 diabetes were meeting barriers in access to public school programs and equal access to emergency care in public school districts in Washington State. She initiated T1DF’s drug pricing campaign in late 2016, expanding T1DF’s focus from civil to consumer rights. Julia trained as a cultural historian at Yale University, where her graduate research focused on community inclusion and exclusion and the human body as symbolic and contested space. She has since worked to develop a perspective on type 1 diabetes within a social model of disability framework. She brings to T1DF’s consumer rights and health justice campaigns professional experience in publishing, higher education and grant writing. She is the parent of a child with type 1 diabetes.


Charles Fournier, JD

Vice President / Policy and Advocacy

Charles Fournier has been a tireless advocate for the rights of people with type 1 diabetes since his daughter was diagnosed early in 2015. He began T1DF’s civil rights program later that year and has shaped the organization’s focus on equal access to at-school emergency care (glucagon) and Section 504 compliance via projects in Washington State and Oregon. In 2017 he launched the organization’s consumer pricing project and developed T1DF’s policy positions on drug pricing and health insurer benefit design and cost accounting. Charles has degrees in materials science/mathematical physics and a JD from The George Washington University Law School. He has worked around the world on complex construction delay and dispute claims and litigation for public and private clients, including the U.S. Department of Justice. His longterm commitment to human rights includes past work as U.S. lobbyist for a Darfur-based opposition party seeking democratic reforms in Sudan.